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Duchy of Lithuania Lithuanian brooches from 9th—12th centuries The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC: KundaNeman and Narva cultures. They were traveling hunters and did not form stable settlements. In the 8th millennium BC, the climate became much warmer, and forests developed.
The inhabitants of what is now Lithuania then traveled less and engaged in local hunting, gathering and fresh-water fishing. Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land.
Crafts and trade also started to form at this time. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeanswho arrived in the 3rd — 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes.
The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empirebut they did maintain trade contacts see Amber Road.
Tacitusin his study Germaniadescribed the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were probably Balts, around the year 97 AD.
The Western Balts differentiated and became known to outside chroniclers first. Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD knew of the Galindians and Yotvingiansand early medieval chroniclers mentioned Old PrussiansCuronians and Semigallians.
It is believed to have differentiated from the Latvian languagethe most closely related existing language, around the 7th century.
At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe.
Known from the 6—7th centuries, it was used as a war horse by the Lithuanians. From the midth century, it was the Lithuanians who were invading Ruthenian territories.
InPolotsk and Pskov were ravaged, and even the distant and powerful Novgorod Republic was repeatedly threatened by the excursions from the emerging Lithuanian war machine toward the end of the 12th century. Such military and pecuniary activities fostered social differentiation and triggered a struggle for power in Lithuania.
This initiated the formation of early statehood, from which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania developed. The Livonian Brothers were smashed during it and their further conquest of the Balts lands were stopped. Gediminas, obeying the will of gods, built the city, and gave it the name Vilnius — from the stream of the Vilnia River.
The victory brought the city of Kiev and a large part of present-day Ukraine, including sparsely populated Podolia and Dykraunder the control of the expanding Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The ruling elite practised religious tolerance and Chancery Slavonic language was used as an auxiliary language to the Latin for official documents. Jogaila embarked on gradual Christianization of Lithuania and established a personal union between Poland and Lithuania.
Lithuania was one of the last pagan areas of Europe to adopt Christianity. During his reign, Lithuania reached the peak of its territorial expansion, centralization of the state began, and the Lithuanian nobility became increasingly prominent in state politics. In the great Battle of the Vorskla River inthe combined forces of Tokhtamysh and Vytautas were defeated by the Mongols.
Thanks to close cooperation, the armies of Lithuania and Poland achieved a great victory over the Teutonic Knights in at the Battle of Grunwaldone of the largest battles of medieval Europe.
Another crown was sent, but Vytautas died in the Trakai Island Castle several days before it reached Lithuania.caninariojana.com?ixlib=rb&q=45&auto=format&w=&fit. After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message: It’s Time To Go.
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This section is for attacking a planet from orbit. The next section is for attacking a planet by ground assault.. After all the interplanetary battles are over, and the defender's space fleets have been reduced to ionized plasma or fled in panic, the pendultimate stage is entered.