Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems for a wide range of purposes; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific studies using computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; creating and using communications and entertainment media; finding and gathering information relevant to any particular purpose, Tesco business communication essay so on.
The list is virtually endless, and the possibilities are vast. Computing also has other meanings that are more specific, based on the context in which the term is used. For example, an information systems specialist will view computing somewhat differently from a software engineer.
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Regardless of the context, doing computing well can be complicated and difficult. Because society needs people to do computing well, we must think of computing not only as a profession but also as a discipline. The term "computing" has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a ACM report on Computing as a Discipline: The fundamental question underlying all computing is "What can be efficiently automated?
In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by mechanical computing machinesand before that, to human computers [ citation needed ].
History of computing and Timeline of computing The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.
Computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers. But long before abstractions like the number arose, there were mathematical concepts to serve the purposes of civilization.
These concepts include one-to-one correspondence the basis of countingcomparison to a standard used for measurementand the right triangle a device for assuring a right angle. The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacusand it was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa BC.
Its original style of usage was by lines drawn in sand with pebbles. Abaci, of a more modern design, are still used as calculation tools today. This was the first known calculation aid - preceding Greek methods by 2, years[ citation needed ]. ComputerOutline of computersand Glossary of computer terms A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions called a computer program.
The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions. The same program in its human-readable source code form, enables a programmer to study and develop a sequence of steps known as an algorithm. Because the instructions can be carried out in different types of computers, a single set of source instructions converts to machine instructions according to the central processing unit type.
The execution process carries out the instructions in a computer program. Instructions express the computations performed by the computer. They trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions.
Computer software and hardware[ edit ] Main articles: Software and Computer hardware Computer software or just "software", is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it.
Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast with the old term hardware meaning physical devices.
In contrast to hardware, software is intangible. Application software Application software, also known as an "application" or an "app", is a computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks.
Examples include enterprise softwareaccounting softwareoffice suitesgraphics software and media players. Many application programs deal principally with documents.
Apps may be bundled with the computer and its system software, or may be published separately. Some users are satisfied with the bundled apps and need never install one.
Application software is contrasted with system software and middlewarewhich manage and integrate a computer's capabilities, but typically do not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user.
The system software serves the application, which in turn serves the user. Application software applies the power of a particular computing platform or system software to a particular purpose. Some apps such as Microsoft Office are available in versions for several different platforms; others have narrower requirements and are thus called, for example, a Geography application for Windows or an Android application for education or Linux gaming.
Sometimes a new and popular application arises that only runs on one platform, increasing the desirability of that platform.Free business studies papers, essays, and research papers.
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