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Berger February It has been more than a century since Nietzsche proclaimed the death of God. The prophecy was widely accepted as referring to an alleged fact about increasing disbelief in religion, both by those who rejoiced in it and those who deplored it.
As the twentieth century proceeded, however, the alleged fact became increasingly dubious. And it is very dubious indeed as a description of our point in time at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Religion has not been declining. On the contrary, in much of the world there has been a veritable explosion of religious faith. Ever since the Enlightenment, intellectuals of every stripe have believed that the inevitable consequence of modernity is the decline of religion.
The reason was supposed to be the progress of science and its concomitant rationality, replacing the irrationality and superstition of religion. Not only Nietzsche but other seminal modern thinkers thought so—notably Marx religion as opiate of the masses and Freud religion as illusion. So did the two great figures of classical sociology.
Emile Durkheim explained religion as nothing but a metaphor of social order. To be sure, the two had different attitudes toward this alleged insight.
Durkheim, an Enlightened atheist, saw modern secularity as progress. But, happily or nostalgically, both agreed on what was supposedly happening. Not to put too fine a point on it, they were mistaken. Modernity is not intrinsically secularizing, though it has been so in particular cases one of which, as I will argue in a moment, is very relevant for the phenomenon of secularism.
The mistake, I think, can be described as a confusion of categories: Modernity is not necessarily secularizing; it is necessarily pluralizing.
Modernity is characterized by an increasing plurality, within the same society, of different beliefs, values, and worldviews. This challenge, however, is not the one assumed by secularization theory.
Looked at globally, there are two particularly powerful religious explosions—resurgent Islam and dynamic evangelical Protestantism. Passionate Islamic movements are on the rise throughout the Muslim world, from the Atlantic Ocean to the China Sea, and in the Muslim diaspora in the West.
The rise of evangelical Protestantism has been less noticed by intellectuals, the media, and the general public in Western countries, partly because nowhere is it associated with violence and partly because it more directly challenges the assumptions of established elite opinion: What is more, the Islamic growth has occurred mostly in populations that were already Muslim—a revitalization rather than a conversion.Secularism in India Meaning of Secularism in India: Secularism in India refers to the equal status and treatment of all religions.
The dictionary meaning of the word ‘secularism’ is skepticism in matters of religion. But we, in India, use the work in a broader sense. Secularism in India means equal treatment of all religions by the state.
With the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution of India enacted in , the Preamble to the Constitution asserted that India is a secular nation. However, neither India's constitution nor its laws . Secularization Falsified by Peter L.
Berger February In India, the ideology of hindutva has similar ambitions, This essay, in a slightly different form, was delivered as a William Phillips Memorial Lecture at the New School for Social Research on October 10, Permission to publish it .
Essay on Secularism in India The word ‘secular’ is used with reference to the Church. In the Middle Ages religion was the most dominant force and the State was more or less ecclesiastical (guided by the Church or the religious head). Essay on Secularism in India Secularism in India The secular character of the Indian polity was recognized and confirmed at the time of the inception of the country.
But it is my personal affair. The State has nothing to do with it. The State would look after your secular welfare, health, communications, foreign relations, currency and so on, but not your or my religion. That is everybody's personal concern!!" Hinduism is a faith that on the whole is favorable to the development of the secular state in India.