In addition, there are two types of plants with different biochemical pathways; the C3 carbon fixationwhere the isotope separation effect is more pronounced, C4 carbon fixationwhere the heavier 13C is less depleted, and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism CAM plants, where the effect is similar but less pronounced than with C4 plants. Isotopic fractionation in plants is caused by physical slower diffusion of 13C in plant tissues due to increased atomic weight and biochemical preference of 12C by two enzymes: RuBisCO and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase factors.
Not Edited nor Revised The concept of African personality generally refers to manifestations of cultural uniqueness among Africans as reflected in their behavior, social norms, customs, values, beliefs, religious zeal, attitudes, explanations of the cosmos and the supernatural, social and political systems historically or in contemporary times.
The concept of the African personality has been addressed by many past and contemporary Africans and Afro-Americans. It has been defined differently when used to designate all the black people with an African heritage; mainly those of the Caribbean Islands and the United States of America.
Let us examine a few of these definitions, some of which do not precisely define the African personality but merely seek to describe and explain the personality and cultural uniqueness of Africans.
If we were, from my own observation, to try to summarize the difference Material and non material culture African and Western psychology and I would say that the Westerner has a problem solving mind whilst the African has a situation experiencing mind.
There is a tendency in the West, whether the Westerners themselves know it or not, for people to assume that man lives to work. We believe that man works to live.
This view of life gives rise to our high preference for leisure. With us, life has always meant the pursuit of happiness rather than the pursuit of beauty or truth.
We pursue happiness by rejecting isolationism, individualism, negative emotions, and tensions, on the one hand; and by encouraging positive emotions and habitual relaxation, and by restraining our desires on the other. African psychology is the recognition and practice of a body of knowledge which is fundamentally different in origin, content, and direction than that recognized and practiced by Euro-American psychologists.
The differences between African psychology and Euro-American psychology reflect the differences between Black people and White people or, in terms of basic culture, between Africans and Europeans.
The conception of a man is different among Africans and, unlike that of Cartesian Europe, is never dualist or dichotomist. There is never the separation between body and soul found elsewhere. Certain prominent and relevant themes prevail in these works. For example, one fundamental issue is that of the African living in communities with little or no emphasis on the individualism prevalent in Western Society.
Another is that the African lives by natural rhythms, hence establishing a primordial attachment to the universe and the cosmos. Their attachment to nature makes it imperative that they be a religious people who believe in the powers of supernatural forces.
Because the African is immersed in the totality of the social life and his strong belief in nature and the ancestral spirits, the African finds it difficult to tear social phenomenon into small bits for purposes of abstract analysis and philosophy.
One is the Western and Western-oriented scholars who express the view that the African does not exhibit Western traits of thought and culture because he is not yet civilized. Therefore, they believe what is needed is to provide him with Western knowledge and culture so that eventually he will become like the Westerner.
The other school of thought maintains the African behaves, thinks and lives as he does because he is unique.
It holds that Western education and culture should be used to enhance further his uniqueness. A few of the views from these two opposing schools of thought will be briefly reviewed.
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Some sociologists like Ogburn and Nimkoff divides culture into two parts namely material and non-material. Material culture consists of concrete and tangible objects like tools, implements, furniture, automobiles, books, buildings, dams etc. History From Things: Essays on Material Culture [Steven Lubar, W.
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Concept of African Personality. Among Zambian Students: Sociological Implications – Summary of M. A. Thesis. By. Mwizenge S. Tembo. Research fellow.