Earthworm research paper

Today, our genes testify to these prehistoric liaisons.

Earthworm research paper

The concept was first created ca.

Earthworm research paper

The book has since been published online. So far we have very little direct knowledge of alien minds -- but we have some fascinating bases for speculation. He led the chimp into a room full of toys, went out, closed the door and put his eye to the keyhole to see what the chimp was doing.

He found himself gazing into a glittering interested brown eye only inches from his own.

Earthworm research paper

The chimp was looking through the keyhole to see what the psychologist was doing. Obviously even a creature that looks vaguely human may, or may not act human.

Earthworm Facts -

Certainly we shall be at least as surprised by alien behavior as we are by earthly minds. But evolution is even more important than physical appearance, especially where alien psychology—xenopsychology—is concerned. All living creatures, whether of this world or another, survivors in an endless chain of "winners," organisms whose behavior and sentience allowed them to succeed and increase their numbers.

Intelligence on Earth On Earth, evolution favored voted the Earthworm research paper of intelligence in two major classes of animal nervous systems, called ganglionic and chordate.

G-spot - Wikipedia

It has its own peculiar psychology. The earthworm is typical. Each of its many segments is almost an individual organism unto itself, having its own set of kidneys, muscles, sensors and so forth.

Coordination is achieved by a thin latticework of nerve fibers crisscrossing from side to side and lengthwise. The ganglionic system resembles a ladder with bulbous neural tissues at the joints. Invertebrate organisms thus are comprised of a collection of sub-brains, each of which controls a separate part Earthworm research paper the animal with fairly complete autonomy and no real centralized control.

Sensors and their ganglia tend to cluster nearer the head, making not a true brain as we understand the term but rather a large bundle of distinct fibers. Such a nervous system is highly efficient for responding quickly to stimuli.

Each clump of nerve cells becomes expert at some particular function—detecting and passing along sensory information, sweeping a leg or swing in wide uniform arc, opening and closing the jaws in slow munching motions during feeding, and so on.

Might extraterrestrials develop a high ganglionic intelligence that has, never developed on Earth despite hundreds of millions of years of opportunity? Many an evolutionary biologists believe the system is too complicated to scale up in size — invertebrates are much less intelligent than vertebrates, kilogram for kilogram.

Also, ganglionic intelligence may be physically self-limiting. Typical invertebrate nervous systems just have room to accommodate mostly preprogrammed behaviors. Little space is left for growth of surplus neural matter that might eventually evolve into higher intellect.

Finally, the endless cross-connections within the body can become so entangled that they actually begin to strangle other body organs. It is hard for us to imagine the mentality of beings with advanced ganglionic intelligence.

Chandler Elliot, a neurologist at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine, notes that humans normally disregard their internal organs. We respond to an empty stomach or a feeling of indigestion but normally we ignore its activities.

If one deftly clips off the abdomen of a feeding wasp, the head may go on sucking, obviously not distressed. The mind of such a creature, must be alien to us almost beyond comprehension.

Neural centralization is the key idea, with any number of modular sensory, analytical, or other information-processing units plugged into a coordinating "data bus.


The simple brain was more compact and had plenty of room to grow, perched on the tip of the notochord. Paul MacLean, chief of the Laboratory Evolution and Behavior at the National Institute of Mental Health, believes that the evolution of the human brain involved the slow accretion of three successive neural strata.

This "triune" brain, explains MacLean, "amounts to three interconnected biological computers, each with its own special intelligence, its own subjectivity, its own sense of time and space, its own memory, motor, and other functions.

Thus we are obligated to look at ourselves and the world through the eyes of three quite different mentalities. What if alien chordate intelligences evolve with a slightly different emphasis?

One likely prerequisite for rapid neocortical development is stable internal body temperature. On another planet where warm-bloodedness had not yet been invented, the reptilian brain might predominate instead of the neocortex as in humans. Some scientists have proposed just such an intelligence among the dinosaurs, whose evolution was perhaps short-circuited by a meteorite impact 65 million years ago, causing the Great Extinction.

ETs with advanced reptilian brains might display dogged aggressiveness and unyielding single-mindedness of purpose, and create societies having massive impenetrable hierarchical bureaucracies with individual actions heavily dictated by ritual gestures, elaborate ceremonies and dances, "turf" rules and highly stereotyped, emotionally cold behaviors.

A predominantly limbic intellect possibly could arise in an environment favoring the rapid development of the olfactory cortex the oldest and one of the most important components of the limbic brain in mammals.A.

The clitellum produces a mucous sheath and nutritive material, and as the sheath slides forward, it picks up ova from the earthworm’s ovaries then packets of sperm that had been transferred to the worm from another worm during mating.

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Record great data and perform meaningful interpretation. Research Platforms with AcqKnowledge software provide powerful data acquisition hardware and automated analysis routines for wired, wireless, logging, and MRI setups, for human or animal studies.

Integrated solutions make it easy to combine and synchronize systems. Get facts and pictures of your favorite animals. common name: earthworm scientific name: suborder Crassiclitellata, cohort Terrimegadrili (Jamieson, ) Introduction - Distribution - Morphology and Anatomy - Life Cycle - Ecological Importance - Economic Importance - Management-Selected References Introduction (Back to Top).

Like insects, earthworms (Figure 1) are among . 9. On a separate piece of paper, draw and label the parts of the earthworm you observed, and color code the systems.


Use green for the reproductive system, yellow for the digestive system, blue for the excretory system, and red for the nervous system.

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