All that is required is to measure the intensity of the sun at various times of the year. That difference is proportional to the angle of the sun relative to the surface of the Earth. This measurement does not prove the Earth is round because it can be explained by the flat Earth model as well.
If one were to look at a tree one day, and the tree later lost a leaf, it would seem that one could still be looking at that same tree.
Two rival theories to account for the relationship between change and identity are perdurantismwhich treats the tree as a series of tree-stages, and endurantismwhich maintains that the organism—the same tree—is present at every stage in its history.
Space and time[ edit ] See also: Philosophy of space and time Objects appear to us in space and time, while abstract entities such as classes, properties, and relations do not. What then is meant by space and time such that it can serve this function as a ground for objects? Are space and time entities themselves, of some form, or must they exist prior to other entities?
How exactly can they be defined? For example, if time is defined as a "rate of change" then must there always be something changing in order for time to exist? Causality Classical philosophy recognized a number of causes, including teleological future causes.
In special relativity and quantum field theory the notions of space, time and causality become tangled together, with temporal orders of causations becoming dependent on who is observing them.
The laws of physics are symmetrical in time, so could equally well be used to describe time as running backwards. Why then do we perceive it as flowing in one direction, the arrow of timeand as containing causation flowing in the same direction? Causality is linked by most philosophers to the concept of counterfactuals.
To say that A caused B means that if A had not happened then B would not have happened. Causality is usually required as a foundation for philosophy of scienceif science aims to understand causes and effects and make predictions about them. Necessity and possibility[ edit ] See also: Modal logic and Modal realism Metaphysicians investigate questions about the ways the world could have been.
David Lewisin On the Plurality of Worldsendorsed a view called Concrete Modal realismaccording to which facts about how things could have been are made true by other concrete worlds, just as in ours, in which things are different.
Other philosophers, such as Gottfried Leibnizhave dealt with the idea of possible worlds as well. The idea of necessity is that any necessary fact is true across all possible worlds.
A possible fact is true in some possible world, even if not in the actual world. For example, it is possible that cats could have had two tails, or that any particular apple could have not existed.
By contrast, certain propositions seem necessarily true, such as analytic propositionse. A less controversial view might be that self-identity is necessary, as it seems fundamentally incoherent to claim that for any x, it is not identical to itself; this is known as the law of identity, a putative "first principle".
Aristotle describes the principle of non-contradiction, "It is impossible that the same quality should both belong and not belong to the same thing This is the most certain of all principles Wherefore they who demonstrate refer to this as an ultimate opinion.
For it is by nature the source of all the other axioms. Cosmology and cosmogony[ edit ] See also:There are times when modern scientists act like members of the Inquisition. Such situations can result in people getting removed from their positions in the scientific community, courses being shut down, scientists being fired, or papers being retracted.
Stuck writing about a kepler s laws of planetary motion essays? Find thousands of free kepler s laws of planetary motion essays, term papers, research papers. Why is there so much interest in the flat earth now?
The concept of a non-moving flat earth which all the luminaries in the sky rotate around is the traditional way virtually all . Models of the Universe are described and classified into three major categories: Historic, Expanding, and Cellular.
It is shown that all expanding universe models violate the cosmic edge and containment principle. The multi-millennium conflict between the two major world views --the changing dynamic universe and the unchanging stable universe-- is highlighted.
Decisions are the heart of success and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing and nerve racking.
This side provides useful and practical guidance for making efficient and effective decisions in both public and private life. Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of caninariojana.com primary objects of study are matter and energy.
Physics is, in one sense, the oldest and most basic academic pursuit; its discoveries find applications throughout the natural sciences, since matter and energy are the basic constituents of the natural world.