Fieldmarshal — ENTJ Personality Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging type Of the four aspects of strategic analysis and definition it is the marshaling or situational organizing role that reaches the highest development in the Fieldmarshal. Structural and functional engineering, though practiced in some degree in the course of organizational operations, tend to be not nearly as well developed and are soon outstripped by the rapidly growing skills in organizing.
Effective typologies also allow for increased ability to predict clinically relevant information about people and to develop effective treatment strategies.
These classification systems attempt to describe normal temperament and personality and emphasize the predominant features of different temperament and personality types; they are largely the province of the discipline of psychology.
Personality disorders, on the other hand, reflect the work of psychiatry, a medical specialty, and are disease-oriented. Furthermore, because personality test scores usually fall on a bell curve rather than in distinct categories,  personality type theories have received considerable criticism among psychometric researchers.
Most researchers now believe that it is impossible to explain the diversity of human personality with a small number of discrete types. They recommend trait models instead, such as the five-factor model.
Table of similar systems of comparison of temperaments An early form of personality type indicator theory was the Four Temperaments system of Galenbased on the four humours model of Hippocrates ; an extended five temperaments system based on the classical theory was published in One example of personality types is Type A and Type B personality theory.
According to this theory, impatient, achievement-oriented people are classified as Type A, whereas easy-going, relaxed individuals are designated as Type B.
The theory originally suggested that Type A individuals were more at risk for coronary heart diseasebut this claim has not been supported by empirical research.
He suggests that shy, withdrawn children are best viewed as having an inhibited temperament, which is qualitatively different from that of other children. Hans Eysenck refers to superordinate personality factors as types, and more specific associated traits as traits.
Carl Jung[ edit ] One of the more influential ideas originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung as published in the book Psychological Types. Jung proposed the existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions: Among these he distinguishes four basic functions: According to Jung, rationality consists of figurative thoughts, feelings or actions with reason — a point of view based on objective value, which is set by practical experience.
Nonrationality is not based in reason. Jung notes that elementary facts are also nonrational, not because they are illogical but because, as thoughts, they are not judgments. The preferences for extraversion and introversion are often called attitudes.
Each of the cognitive functions can operate in the external world of behavior, action, people, and things extraverted attitude or the internal world of ideas and reflection introverted attitude.
People who prefer extraversion draw energy from action: If they are inactive, their motivation tends to decline. To rebuild their energy, extraverts need breaks from time spent in reflection. Conversely, those who prefer introversion expend energy through action: To rebuild their energy, introverts need quiet time alone, away from activity.
An extravert's flow is directed outward toward people and objects, an introvert's is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting characteristics between extraverts and introverts include the following: Extraverts are action-oriented, while introverts are thought-oriented.
Extraverts seek breadth of knowledge and influence, while introverts seek depth of knowledge and influence. Extraverts often prefer more frequent interaction, while introverts prefer more substantial interaction.
Extraverts recharge and get their energy from spending time with people, while introverts recharge and get their energy from spending time alone. The functions are modified by two main attitude types: In any person, the degree of introversion or extraversion of one function can be quite different from that of another function.Tools, instruments, questionnaires, & surveys for reserach in outdoor education, adventure education, adventure programming, adventure therapy, therapeutic recreation.
History and explanation of personlity testing and analysis, from the Four Temperaments to Katherine Benziger. Analysis of Keirsey Temperament Sorter Essay Sample. After reviewing the results of my Keirsey Temperament Sorter, I found that a great deal of the on-line information and analysis of the group known as Idealists fit the way I perceive myself quite accurately.
As with Jung's original typology, I will not try to describe all the characteristics of the new types. However, the names that Keirsey and Bates give to each are often suggestive, so they are listed at left.
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