My dissertation examines the turn-of-the-century rhetoric of "truth" and "objectivity" in relation to the era's obsession with racial definition and categorization. Whether these definitions were based on biology, sociology, psychology or law; whether they opposed or encouraged social equality; and whether they questioned the notion of racial difference itself, they relied almost exclusively on a rhetoric of objectivity. My project attempts to chart how writers of fiction Charles Chesnutt, W.
Chinese Porcelain Wine Cup Jamestown Rediscovery's archaeologists excavated this nearly complete Chinese porcelain wine cup from a ca. This cup probably was part a shipment of goods that the Dutch purchased in the East and then sold in England.
A gentleman at Jamestown either purchased the wine cup or received it as a gift. He might have drank aqua vitae an alcoholic beverage that was part of each colonist's supplies from the cup or used it as an indication of his status as a gentleman.
Strachey was one of the colonists who left for Virginia on the Sea Venture in This ship encountered storms on the voyage across the Atlantic Ocean and was wrecked on Bermuda.
Strachey and the Sea Venture's other passengers did not arrive in the colony until He left Virginia in Large Image Silver Ear Picker The silver ear picker is in the shape of a "sea rhinoceros" or dolphin.
The owner of this ornate ear picker might have used the loop to hang it from a girdle or a chain around his neck as an indication of his status. It is possible that the owner was a gentleman who spent several years sailing across the Atlantic Ocean before he settled at James Fort.
Surgeons also used ear pickers made of either bone or a cheaper metal in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Large Image Bottom Collar Section of a Glass Alembic An alembic is one of the two main sections of a distilling unit used by a metallurgist to produce nitric acid which he used to separate gold from silver.
A metallurgist poured sulfuric acid in the cucurbit, the bottom portion of the distilling unit, and placed it over a flame. The vapor condensed in the alembic and then the condensate dripped out of the alembic's spout into a bottle or flask. Archaeologists found this portion of a glass alembic in the cellar of a building that was constructed before Large Image Rotating Image Goffering Iron It is likely that a gentleman at James Fort used a goffering iron to crimp or frill a large neck ruff that was fashionable for English men between ca.
First, he used white starch to add stiffness to the ruff. Next, a gentleman heated the goffering iron by putting a smaller, hot iron inside the tube. Finally, the man shaped his ruff with the hot goffering iron.
Large Image Buckler A buckler was a small leather shield that soldiers used from the thirteenth century to the late sixteenth century.
A soldier held a buckler in his left hand and a sword in his right. Most bucklers were round and they measured between eleven and fourteen inches in diameter. The leather was reinforced with metal and had an iron boss with a projecting spike in the center.
Large Image Rapier In the sixteenth century, Italian fencing masters began to teach their students to fence with rapiers. A fencer held a rapier with its long, sharp blade in one hand and a dagger in the other hand to block thrusts.
Soldiers stopped using bucklers in the last quarter of the sixteenth century because these small shields did not provide much protection against a man with a rapier. The handle is missing and the red glaze is on the interior.
Members of the English upper class might have had silver chamber pots in the early seventeenth century. It is likely that a colonist at Jamestown decided to bring this Border ware chamber pot to Virginia.
Chamber pots were not common in the first half of the seventeenth century and they were not on the list of supplies that the Virginia Company of London gave to the settlers. The decorations on the rim were made with a cord-wrapped dowel. An analysis of the interior of the pot indicates that someone cooked a corn and deer meat stew in the vessel.
It is possible that the pot was a trade item between the Patawomekes and the Powhatan Indians or between the Patawomekes and the settlers at Jamestown.
It is likely that a colonist threw out the pot after he ate the food. The pot, like most Indian pots, had a rounded bottom and it would not stand on a flat surface. Large Image Dutch Delftware Pharmaceutical Jar One of the first doctors at Jamestown probably used this pharmaceutical jar to store medicine, plant material, a salve, or an ointment.
These cylindrical jars were used for medicines in the middle ages and were mentioned in early recipe books for storing sweets and marmalades. It is likely that this jar was Dutch because of the early context in which archaeologists found it.
Also, the Dutch favored the use of antimony to produce orange decorations. Many of the early pharmaceutical jars produced in England were blue and white.
It is difficult to determine its origin because English merchants shipped clay to the Netherlands. The decorations on the jar and the hastily-executed X pattern are similar to sherds that archaeologists have found in excavations of kilns in England.
Sherds of pharmaceutical jars are the most common item found in the early sections of James Fort.In the last decade the world-systems approach has been extended to the analysis of earlier and smaller intersocietal systems. This is a rough effort to determine the nature and scale of the interaction networks of the Chesapeake world-system based on the descriptions found in the published literature.
_____ Pocahontas’s People. Pocahontas Saving Captain John Smith from Death in , mural by Paul Cadmus, Smith's version of events is the only source, and since the s, skepticism has increasingly been expressed about its veracity.
The previous analysis has shown that nature plays an important part in Disney’s Pocahontas. It can, however, not find entrance into the movie in an authentic form as it . These instructions also sanctioned attacking Iniocasoockes, the cultural leaders of the local Powhatans.
The campaign ended the Powhatan siege and resulted in the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe which introduced a short period of truce between the English and the Powhatan Confederacy.
Pequot War – A study of the early settlements of Jamestown (Va.), Roanoke Colony (N. C.), and the story of Pocahontas.
The author includes information on the discrepancies surrounding the death and burial site of Pocahontas. Also includes copies of photographs, maps, and table of contents.
Feb 19, · - First African slaves landed at Jamestown Spring - While he sails up the Mauritius River (Hudson) to Fort Nassau, captain Hendrick Christiaensen is attacked by Indians aboard the Swarte Beer.